State anti-ESG laws are expanding in scope and reach, creating a bind for companies seeking to comply with investor demands and a growing patchwork of statutes that aim to limit the use of ESG factors
A growing number of states are passing laws to restrict the use of environmental, social & governance (ESG) factors in making investment and business decisions. Proponents of these laws claim ESG threatens investment returns and uses economic power to implement business standards beyond those required by law.
Together, these new laws create an uneven regulatory patchwork that has already resulted in the divestment of billions of dollars in state funds from investment managers. Investors and businesses increasingly face a choice between complying with these new state laws and achieving the ESG goals promised to investors and stakeholders. New laws introduced in 2023 expand the scope of anti-ESG laws and present significant uncertainty for an increasing range of businesses.
Fiduciary duties & non-pecuniary factors
Federal regulators and conservative lawmakers in some states are taking opposing approaches to defining the duties of fiduciaries. Investors making decisions using ESG frameworks include factors such as greenhouse gas emissions, which go beyond traditional fiduciary criteria like return on investment. The conflict reflects a philosophical disagreement between the belief that companies should work only to maximize returns, on one hand, and consideration of the interests of a wider range of stakeholders and outcomes, on the other.
In 2022, the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) released a final rule addressing when fiduciaries may consider ESG factors in accordance with their fiduciary duties under the Employment Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). Under ERISA, retirement plan fiduciaries have a duty to act solely in the interest of plan participants and beneficiaries. The new rule clarifies that fiduciaries may consider ESG factors such as climate change and may select from competing investments based on collateral economic or social benefits. In late-January, 25 states filed a lawsuit in federal court seeking an injunction against the new rules.
Even before the release of the DOL final rule, several states proposed laws prohibiting the use so-called “non-pecuniary factors” in making investment decisions for state pensions and other funds. Earlier in 2022, the American Legislative Exchange Council introduced the State Government Employee Retirement Protection Act, model legislation that closely mirrors fiduciary duty bills later introduced in several states.
On March 24, Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear (D) signed House Bill 236 into law. Under the statute, “environmental, social, political, or ideological interests” not connected to investment returns may not be included in determining whether a fiduciary or proxy of the state retirement system is acting solely in the interest of the members and beneficiaries. Five non-exclusive factors, including statements of principles and participation in initiatives, are listed as evidence a fiduciary has considered or acted on a non-pecuniary interest.
In 2023, legislators introduced fiduciary duty laws of varying scope in several large states, including Ohio and Missouri. In total, legislators in more than 20 states have introduced bills amending the fiduciary duty laws covering investing and proxy voting for state retirement systems.
To further complicate matters, state pension funds in states like New York and California take the opposite approach, setting net zero carbon targets for their portfolios, for example.
ESG as boycott
Conservative politicians often claim ESG uses economic power to enact political agendas through alternative means. They argue goals like decarbonization amount to a boycott of fossil fuel companies and are a threat to the economies of states dependent on the extractive industry. New legislation expands on previous anti-boycott laws to include targeting companies that consider ESG factors.
Several states have already started the process of divesting retirement system and other funds from financial companies they claim boycott fossil fuel companies. For example, a 2021 Texas law requires the State Comptroller to publish a list of boycotting companies. The Comptroller’s initial criteria for inclusion included membership in Climate Action 100 and the Net Zero Banking Alliance/Net Zero Asset Managers Initiative, two major financial industry initiatives focused on climate change.
Utah Governor Spencer Cox (R) signed a bill into law on March 15 that goes beyond state investments to prohibit companies from coordinating or conspiring with another company to eliminate viable options for another company to obtain a product or service “with the specific intent of destroying a boycotted company.” A boycotted company is defined by the law as one that engages in aspects of the firearms industry or does not meet certain ESG standards.
Social Credit scores
Speaking in support of the Utah anti-conspiracy bill, state Rep. Mike Petersen (R) said: “I’m convinced that ESG is not a conspiracy theory, it is a conspiracy truth.” To many of its opponents and skeptics, ESG is an unaccountable shadow regulatory system that takes specific aim at industries and policies supported by conservatives.
The belief that the stated goals of ESG mask other motives is at the source of bills introduced in several states to prohibit financial institutions from using a “social credit score” to make lending or other decisions and defining the term to include ESG. The language invokes the Social Credit System in use in China, which monitors and punishes individuals and businesses for certain behaviors and serves as a type of blacklist.
Though some ESG frameworks produce numerical scores for various metrics, the comparison to the Social Credit System is rejected by ESG experts. There is no substantive overlap between China’s surveillance apparatus and ESG in goals or application.
This distinction has not dissuaded lawmakers in Florida, who enacted legislation amending state banking law to make the use of social credit scores by lenders an unsafe and unsound practice in violation of state financial institutions codes and unfair trade practices laws, subject to sanctions and penalties. The law prohibits the use of a social credit score based on factors that include, among other things, ESG standards on topics including emissions and corporate board diversity.
The Florida bill and others like it expand previous efforts by the state to divest state funds to restrict decisions on private lending, potentially involving many more financial institutions.
On the horizon
The volume of anti-ESG bills introduced in state legislatures is growing. Many are passing as the topic gains political salience, particularly on the political right. As these laws pass, they serve as models for similar legislation in other states. However, the success of future legislation faces significant headwinds.
Anti-ESG laws have been passed predominantly in states where Republicans control the governorship and both houses of the legislature. So far, there is little indication many Democrats will support these anti-ESG laws. Indeed, the growing scope of anti-ESG laws pose another roadblock to their widespread adoption. Newer laws impose restrictions on a much broader range of companies, which only increases the complexity of enforcement and increases the risk of a legal challenge.
A lack of uniformity means businesses operating in more than one state may have to make difficult choices. The broader economic consequences of anti-ESG laws are still undetermined, but compliance with these new laws presents immediate challenges.